Immune Abnormalities

 

Research into immune abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder have identified a wide range of concerns.  Autoimmunity, inflammation, depressed immune function, brain antibodies, CD4/CD8, natural killer cells, etc.  The list of immune dysregulation in ASD is long.  I have listed some of the most interesting studies here.  The take home message is that the immune system is an important part of biomedical treatment.

 

1. The immune system’s role in the biology of autism
Goines P, Van de Water J.
Curr Opin Neurol. 2010 Apr;23(2):111-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20160651

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The following is a review of the most recent research concerning the potential role of immune system dysfunction in autism. This body of literature has expanded dramatically over the past few years as researchers continue to identify immune anomalies in individuals with autism. RECENT FINDINGS: The most exciting of these recent findings is the discovery of autoantibodies targeting brain proteins in both children with autism and their mothers. In particular, circulating maternal autoantibodies directed toward fetal brain proteins are highly specific for autism. This finding has great potential as a biomarker for disease risk and may provide an avenue for future therapeutics and prevention. Additionally, data concerning the cellular immune system in children with autism suggest there may be a defect in signaling pathways that are shared by the immune and central nervous systems. Although studies to explore this hypothesis are ongoing, there is great interest in the commonalities between the neural and immune systems and their extensive interactions. SUMMARY: In summary, the exciting research regarding the role of the immune system in autism spectrum disorders may have profound implications for diagnosis and treatment of this devastating disease.

2. Mercury induces inflammatory mediator release from human mast cells
Kempuraj D, Asadi S, Zhang B, Manola A, Hogan J, Peterson E, Theoharides TC.
J Neuroinflammation. 2010 Mar 11;7(1):20. [Epub ahead of print]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20222982

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation. Many patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have “allergic” symptoms; moreover, the prevalence of ASD in patients with mastocytosis, characterized by numerous hyperactive mast cells in most tissues, is 10-fold higher than the general population suggesting mast cell involvement. We, therefore, investigated the effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) on human mast cell activation. METHODS: Human leukemic cultured LAD2 mast cells and normal human umbilical cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMCs) were stimulated by HgCl2 (0.1-10 microM) for either 10 min for beta-hexosaminidase release or 24 h for measuring vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and IL-6 release by ELISA. RESULTS: HgCl2 induced a 2-fold increase in beta-hexosaminidase release, and also significant VEGF release at 0.1 and 1 microM (311+/-32 pg/10*6 cells and 443+/-143 pg/10*6 cells, respectively) from LAD2 mast cells compared to control cells (227+/-17 pg/10*6 cells, n=5, p<0.05). Addition of HgCl2 (0.1 microM) to the proinflammatory neuropeptide substance P (SP, 0.1 microM) had synergestic action in inducing VEGF from LAD2 mast cells. HgCl2 also stimulated significant VEGF release (360 +/- 100 pg/10*6 cells at 1 microM, n=5, p<0.05) from hCBMCs compared to control cells (182 +/-57 pg/10*6 cells), and IL-6 release (466+/-57 pg/10*6 cells at 0.1 microM) compared to untreated cells (13+/-25 pg/10*6 cells, n=5, p<0.05). Addition of HgCl2 (0.1 microM) to SP (5 microM) further increased IL-6 release. CONCLUSIONS: HgCl2 stimulates VEGF and IL-6 release from human mast cells. This phenomenon could disrupt the blood-brain-barrier and permit brain inflammation. As a result, the findings of the present study provide a biological mechanism for how low levels of mercury may contribute to ASD pathogenesis.

3. Cathepsin D and apoptosis related proteins are elevated in the brain of autistic subjects
Sheikh AM, Li X, Wen G, Tauqeer Z, Brown WT, Malik M.
Neuroscience. 2010 Jan 20;165(2):363-70. Epub .
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854241

Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems in communication, social skills, and repetitive behavior. Recent studies suggest that apoptotic mechanisms may partially contribute to the pathogenesis of this disorder. Cathepsin D is the predominant lysosomal protease and is abundantly expressed in the brain. It plays an important role in regulation of cellular apoptosis and has been shown to mediate apoptosis induced by cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. In this study, we examined the expression levels of cathepsin D in the autistic brain. We found that cathepsin D protein expression was significantly increased in the frontal cortex, in pyramidal and granule cells of the hippocampus, and in cerebellar neurons in autistic subjects as compared to controls. In addition, we found that the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly decreased, while caspase-3, a critical executioner of apoptosis, was increased in the cerebellum of autistic subjects. Previously our studies have shown that Bcl-2 expression is decreased and the BDNF-Akt-Bcl-2 pathway is compromised in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects, which suggested that increased apoptosis may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. Our current finding of decreased Bcl-2 and increased capase-3 in the cerebellum of autistic subjects further supports this suggestion. In addition, the finding of increased cathepsin D in the cerebellum of autistic subjects suggests that, through its regulation of apoptosis, the altered activities of cathepsin D in the autistic brain may play an important role in the pathogenesis of autism.

4. Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Production of BDNF following Mitogen Stimulation in Early Onset and Regressive Autism
Enstrom A et al.
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 4(2): 121-129 , 2008
http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajbb/ajbb42121-129.pdf

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for neuronal differentiation and synaptic development. BDNF is also implicated in the development of psychological disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Previously, elevated BDNF levels were observed in neonatal blood samples from infants who were later diagnosed with autism when compared with children who developed normally, suggesting that BDNF may be involved in the development of autism. BDNF is produced by activated brain microglial cells, a cellular phenotype that shares several features with peripheral macrophages, suggesting an important role for the immune system in BDNF production. We hypothesized that under mitogenic stimulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from children with autism may have altered BDNF production compared with age-matched typically developing control subjects. In addition, we examined the differences between the production of BDNF in classic/early-onset autism and children who had a regressive form of autism. We show here that plasma levels of BDNF levels are increased in children with autism, especially in early onset autism subjects. Furthermore, under mitogenic stimulation with PHA and LPS, BDNF production is significantly increased in children with autism compared with typically developing subjects. However, stimulation with tetanus toxoid results in a decreased response in children with autism. This data suggest that immune cell-derived production of BDNF could be an important source for the increased BDNF that is detected in some subjects with autism. As a neurotrophic factor produced by immune cells, BDNF could help elucidate the role of the immune system in neurodevelopment and neuronal maintenance, which may be dysregulated in autism.

5. Family analysis of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in children with autistic disorder
Spiroski M et al.
Institute of Immunobiology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, 1109 Skopje, PO Box 60, Macedonia.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2009 Nov;9(4):283-9.

Autistic disorder is a severe neurodevelopment disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and a pattern of repetitive stereotyped activities, behaviours and interests. There are strong lines of evidence to suggest that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze quantitative plasma concentration of immunoglobulin classes, and subclasses in autistic patients and their families. The investigation was performed retrospectively in 50 persons with autistic disorder in the Republic of Macedonia. Infantile autistic disorder was diagnosed by DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. Plasma immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, and IgG) and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) were determined using Nephelometer Analyzer BN-100. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between three pairs: male autistic from the fathers (p = 0,001), female autistic from the mothers (p = 0,008), as well as healthy sisters from the fathers (p = 0,011). Statistically significant differences found between three groups regarding autistic disorder (person with autistic disorder, father/mother of a person with autistic disorder, and brother/sister) independent of sex belongs to IgA, IgG2, and IgG3 variables. Multiple comparisons for the IgA variable have shown statistically significant differences between children with autistic disorder from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001), and healthy brothers and sisters from the fathers and mothers (p < 0,001). Comparison between healthy children and children with autistic disorder from the same family should be tested for immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in order to avoid differences between generations.

6. Reduced levels of immunoglobulin in children with autism correlates with behavioral symptoms
Heuer L et al.
University of California at Davis
Autism Res. 2008 Oct;1(5):275-83.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2663897/pdf/nihms97987.pdf

OBJECTIVES: To assay if plasma antibody levels in children with autism or developmental delays (DD) differ from those with typical development as an indicator of immune function and to correlate antibody levels with severity of behavioral symptoms. METHODS: Plasma was collected from children with autistic disorder (AU; n=116), DD but not autism (n=32), autism spectrum disorder but not full autism (n=27), and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (n=96). Samples were assayed for systemic levels of immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subjects with autism were evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and all subjects were scored on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) by the parents. Numerical scores for each of the ABC subscales as well as the total scores were then correlated with Ig levels. RESULTS: Children with AU have a significantly reduced level of plasma IgG (5.39+/-0.29 mg/mL) compared to the TD (7.72+/-0.28 mg/mL; P<0.001) and DD children (8.23+/-0.49 mg/mL; P<0.001). Children with autism also had a reduced level of plasma IgM (0.670.06 mg/mL) compared to TD (0.79+/-0.05 mg/mL; P<0.05). Ig levels were negatively correlated with ABC scores for all children (IgG: r=-0.334, P<0.0001; IgM: r=-0.167, P=0.0285). CONCLUSION: Children with AU have significantly reduced levels of plasma IgG and IgM compared to both DD and TD controls, suggesting an underlying defect in immune function. This reduction in specific Ig levels correlates with behavioral severity, where those patients with the highest scores in the behavioral battery have the most reduced levels of IgG and IgM.

7. Immune allergic response in Asperger syndrome
Magalhães ES, Pinto-Mariz F, Bastos-Pinto S, Pontes AT, Prado EA, deAzevedo LC.
J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Nov 30;216(1-2):108-12.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19840888

Asperger’s syndrome is a subgroup of autism characterized by social deficits without language delay, and high cognitive performance. The biological nature of autism is still unknown but there are controversial evidence associating an immune imbalance and autism. Clinical findings, including atopic family history, serum IgE levels as well as cutaneous tests showed that incidence of atopy was higher in the Asperger group compared to the healthy controls. These findings suggest that atopy is frequent in this subgroup of autism implying that allergic inflammation might be an important feature in Asperger syndrome.

8. Detection of IL-17 and IL-23 in Plasma Samples of Children with Autism
Enstrom A et al.
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology  4(2): 114-120, 2008
http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajbb/ajbb42114-120.pdf
   
Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a survival factor for a newly described population of T lymphocytes, namely Th-17 cells, that secrete IL-17, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNFα) and IL-6. It has been shown that Th-17 cells are a pathogenic T cell subset involved in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the increasing evidence of immune dysfunction in autism, including possible autoimmune and inflammatory processes, we hypothesized that Th-17 cells, a T cell lineage that has not been previously examined in this disorder, may be altered in autism. To assess the potential role, if any, of Th-17 cells in autism, we analyzed plasma samples obtained from children ranging in age from 2-5 years with a diagnosis of autism and age-matched typically developing controls for the presence of IL-17 and IL-23 cytokines. Plasma samples from 40 children with autism including 20 children with a regressive form of autism, 20 with early onset and no regression and 20 typically developing age-matched control children were analyzed for IL-17 and IL-23, under the hypothesis that altered number and function of Th-17 cells would directly correlate with altered levels of IL-17 and IL-23 in the plasma. In this study, we were able to demonstrate that IL-23 cytokine levels were significantly different in children with autism compared with age-matched controls, a finding primarily driven by children with early onset autism. In contrast, there were no statistical differences in IL-17 levels autism compared with age-matched typically developing controls. This is the first study to report altered IL-23 production in autism. The decreased plasma IL-23 production observed in children with autism warrants further research as to its affect on the generation and survival of Th-17 cells, a subset important in neuroinflammatory conditions that may include autism.

9. Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): a major subset of autism
Singh VK.
Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Jul-Sep;21(3):148-61.

BACKGROUND: Autism causes incapacitating neurologic problems in children that last a lifetime. The author of this article previously hypothesized that autism may be caused by autoimmunity to the brain, possibly triggered by a viral infection. This article is a summary of laboratory findings to date plus new data in support of an autoimmune pathogenesis for autism. METHODS: Autoimmune markers were analyzed in the sera of autistic and normal children, but the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of some autistic children was also analyzed. Laboratory procedures included enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein immunoblotting assay. RESULTS: Autoimmunity was demonstrated by the presence of brain autoantibodies, abnormal viral serology, brain and viral antibodies in CSF, a positive correlation between brain autoantibodies and viral serology, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase reactants, and a positive response to immunotherapy. Many autistic children harbored brain myelin basic protein autoantibodies and elevated levels of antibodies to measles virus and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Measles might be etiologically linked to autism because measles and MMR antibodies (a viral marker) correlated positively to brain autoantibodies (an autoimmune marker)–salient features that characterize autoimmune pathology in autism. Autistic children also showed elevated levels of acute-phase reactants–a marker of systemic inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The scientific evidence is quite credible for our autoimmune hypothesis, leading to the identification of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD) as a major subset of autism. AAD can be identified by immune tests to determine immune problems before administering immunotherapy. The author has advanced a speculative neuroautoimmune (NAI) model for autism, in which virus-induced autoimmunity is a key player. The latter should be targeted by immunotherapy to help children with autism.

10. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.
Blaylock RL.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):46-53.

The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain. It has now been shown that chronic microglial activation is present in autistic brains from age 5 years to age 44 years. A considerable amount of evidence, both experimental and clinical, indicates that repeated microglial activation can initiate priming of the microglia and that subsequent stimulation can produce an exaggerated microglial response that can be prolonged. It is also known that one phenotypic form of microglia activation can result in an outpouring of neurotoxic levels of the excitotoxins, glutamate and quinolinic acid. Studies have shown that careful control of brain glutamate levels is essential to brain pathway development and that excesses can result in arrest of neural migration, as well as dendritic and synaptic loss. It has also been shown that certain cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, can, via its receptor, interact with glutamate receptors to enhance the neurotoxic reaction. To describe this interaction I have coined the term immunoexcitotoxicity, which is described in this article.

11. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 2: immunoexcitotoxicity
Blaylock RL.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):60-7.

In this section, I explore the effects of mercury and inflammation on transsulfuration reactions, which can lead to elevations in androgens, and how this might relate to the male preponderance of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is known that mercury interferes with these biochemical reactions and that chronically elevated androgen levels also enhance the neurodevelopmental effects of excitotoxins. Both androgens and glutamate alter neuronal and glial calcium oscillations, which are known to regulate cell migration, maturation, and final brain cytoarchitectural structure. Studies have also shown high levels of DHEA and low levels of DHEA-S in ASD, which can result from both mercury toxicity and chronic inflammation. Chronic microglial activation appears to be a hallmark of ASD. Peripheral immune stimulation, mercury, and elevated levels of androgens can all stimulate microglial activation. Linked to both transsulfuration problems and chronic mercury toxicity are elevations in homocysteine levels in ASD patients. Homocysteine and especially its metabolic products are powerful excitotoxins. Intimately linked to elevations in DHEA, excitotoxicity and mercury toxicity are abnormalities in mitochondrial function. A number of studies have shown that reduced energy production by mitochondria greatly enhances excitotoxicity. Finally, I discuss the effects of chronic inflammation and elevated mercury levels on glutathione and metallothionein.

12. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 3: the role of excitotoxin food additives and the synergistic effects of other environmental toxins
Blaylock RL.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2009 Mar-Apr;15(2):56-60.

There is compelling evidence from a multitude of studies of various design indicating that foodborne excitotoxin additives can elevate blood and brain glutamate to levels known to cause neurodegeneration and in the developing brain, abnormal connectivity. Excitotoxins are also secreted by microglial activation when they are in an activated state. Recent studies, discussed in part 1 of this article, indicate that chronic microglial activation is common in the autistic brain. The interaction between excitotoxins, free radicals, lipid peroxidation products, inflammatory cytokines, and disruption of neuronal calcium homeostasis can result in brain changes suggestive of the pathological findings in cases of autism spectrum disorders. In addition, a number of environmental neurotoxins, such as fluoride, lead, cadmium, and aluminum, can result in these pathological and biochemical changes.

13. Immune-glutamatergic dysfunction as a central mechanism of the autism spectrum disorders
Blaylock RL, Strunecka A.
Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(2):157-70.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19149568

Despite the great number of observations being made concerning cellular and the molecular dysfunctions associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the basic central mechanism of these disorders has not been proposed in the major scientific literature. Our review brings evidence that most heterogeneous symptoms of ASD have a common set of events closely connected with dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the brain with enhancement of excitatory receptor function by pro-inflammatory immune cytokines as the underlying mechanism. We suggest that environmental and dietary excitotoxins, mercury, fluoride, and aluminum can exacerbate the pathological and clinical problems by worsening excitotoxicity and by microglial priming. In addition, each has effects on cell signaling that can affect neurodevelopment and neuronal function. Our hypothesis opens the door to a number of new treatment modes, including the nutritional factors that naturally reduce excitotoxicity and brain inflammation.

14. Decreased cellular IL-23 but not IL-17 production in children with autism spectrum disorders
Onore C et al.
University of California at Davis
J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Nov 30;216(1-2):126-9. Epub 2009 Oct 2.
$ http://www.jni-journal.com/article/S0165-5728%2809%2900347-6/abstract

A potential role for T(H)17 cells has been suggested in a number of conditions including neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study, we investigated cellular release of IL-17 and IL-23 following an in-vitro immunological challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from children with ASD compared to age-matched typically developing controls. Following stimulation, the concentration of IL-23, but not IL-17, was significantly reduced (p=0.021) in ASD compared to controls. Decreased cellular IL-23 production in ASD warrants further research to determine its role on the generation and survival of T(H)17 cells, a cell subset important in neuroinflammatory conditions that may include ASD.

15. Flavonoids, a prenatal prophylaxis via targeting JAK2/STAT3 signaling to oppose IL-6/MIA associated autism
Parker-Athill E, Luo D, Bailey A, Giunta B, Tian J, Shytle RD, Murphy T, Legradi G, Tan J.
J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Dec 10;217(1-2):20-7. Epub 2009 Sep 18.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19766327
[relevance to schizophrenia & autism: here]

Maternal immune activation (MIA) can affect fetal brain development and thus behavior of young and adult offspring. Reports have shown that increased Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the maternal serum plays a key role in altering fetal brain development, and may impair social behaviors in the offspring. Interestingly, these effects could be attenuated by blocking IL-6. The current study investigated the effects of luteolin, a citrus bioflavonoid, and its structural analog, diosmin, on IL-6 induced JAK2/STAT3 (Janus tyrosine kinase-2/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3) phosphorylation and signaling as well as behavioral phenotypes of MIA offspring. Luteolin and diosmin inhibited neuronal JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo following IL-6 challenge as well as significantly diminishing behavioral deficits in social interaction. Importantly, our results showed that diosmin (10mg/kgday) was able to block the STAT3 signal pathway; significantly opposing MIA-induced abnormal behavior and neuropathological abnormalities in MIA/adult offspring. Diosmin’s molecular inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway may underlie the attenuation of abnormal social interaction in IL-6/MIA adult offspring.

16. An autistic endophenotype results in complex immune dysfunction in healthy siblings of autistic children
Saresella M et al.
Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Nov 15;66(10):978-84. Epub 2009 Aug 22.
$ http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/bps/article/S0006-3223%2809%2900825-7/abstract

BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are simple biological aspects of a disease that can be observed in unaffected relatives at a higher rate than in the general population; an “autism endophenotype” justifies the observation that a mild reduction in ideational fluency and nonverbal generativity might be observed in healthy, unaffected relatives of children with autism. Because it is becoming apparent that autism is associated with given alleles encoding within the human leukocyte antigens region, a region of pivotal importance in immunity, we examined whether the “autism endophenotype” would extend its effects on the immune system. METHODS: Multiple immune parameters were analyzed in autistic children (AC) (n = 20), their siblings (HSAC) (n = 15), and age- and gender-comparable healthy control subjects (HC) (n = 20) without any familiarity for autism. RESULTS: The immune profiles of HSAC were significantly more similar to those of their autistic siblings than to what was observed in HC. Thus, in AC and HSAC compared with HC: 1) proinflammatory and interleukin-10-producing immune cells were augmented (p < .01 in both comparisons); 2) CD8(+) naïve (CD45RA(+)/CCR7+) T lymphocytes were increased (p < .0001 and p = .001); and 3) CD8(+) effector memory (CD45RA(-)/CCR7-) (p < .0001 and p = .03) as well as CD4(+) terminally differentiated (CD45RA(-)/CCR7+) (p < .05 in both comparisons) lymphocytes were diminished. Serum autoantibodies (GM1) could be detected in 10% of AC children alone. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this pilot study indicate that a complex immune dysfunction is present both in autistic children and in their non-autistic siblings and show the presence of an “autism endophenotype” that expands its effects on immunologic functions.

17. Differential monocyte responses to TLR ligands in children with autism spectrum disorders
Enstrom AM, Onore CE, Van de Water JA, Ashwood P.
University of California at Davis
Brain Behav Immun. 2010 Jan;24(1):64-71.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social interactions, communication deficits, and restricted repetitive interests and behaviors. Recent evidence has suggested that impairments of innate immunity may play an important role in ASD. To test this hypothesis, we isolated peripheral blood monocytes from 17 children with ASD and 16 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls and stimulated these cell cultures in vitro with distinct toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands: TLR 2 (lipoteichoic acid; LTA), TLR 3 (poly I:C), TLR 4 (lipopolysaccharide; LPS), TLR 5 (flagellin), and TLR 9 (CpG-B). Supernatants were harvested from the cell cultures and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses for IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha, MCP-1, and GM-CSF were determined by multiplex Luminex analysis. After in vitro challenge with TLR ligands, differential cytokine responses were observed in monocyte cultures from children with ASD compared with TD control children. In particular, there was a marked increase in pro-inflammatory IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha responses following TLR 2, and IL-1beta response following TLR 4 stimulation in monocyte cultures from children with ASD (p<0.04). Conversely, following TLR 9 stimulation there was a decrease in IL-1beta, IL-6, GM-CSF, and TNFalpha responses in monocyte cell cultures from children with ASD compared with controls (p<0.05). These data indicate that, monocyte cultures from children with ASD are more responsive to signaling via select TLRs. As monocytes are key regulators of the immune response, dysfunction in the response of these cells could result in long-term immune alterations in children with ASD that may lead to the development of adverse neuroimmune interactions and could play a role in the pathophysiology observed in ASD.

18. Gene expression profiling of lymphoblasts from autistic and nonaffected sib pairs: altered pathways in neuronal development and steroid biosynthesis
Hu VW et al.
The George Washington University Medical Center
PLoS One. 2009 Jun 3;4(6):e5775.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005775

Despite the identification of numerous autism susceptibility genes, the pathobiology of autism remains unknown. The present “case-control” study takes a global approach to understanding the molecular basis of autism spectrum disorders based upon large-scale gene expression profiling. DNA microarray analyses were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines from over 20 sib pairs in which one sibling had a diagnosis of autism and the other was not affected in order to identify biochemical and signaling pathways which are differentially regulated in cells from autistic and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics and gene ontological analyses of the data implicate genes which are involved in nervous system development, inflammation, and cytoskeletal organization, in addition to genes which may be relevant to gastrointestinal or other physiological symptoms often associated with autism. Moreover, the data further suggests that these processes may be modulated by cholesterol/steroid metabolism, especially at the level of androgenic hormones. Elevation of male hormones, in turn, has been suggested as a possible factor influencing susceptibility to autism, which affects approximately 4 times as many males as females. Preliminary metabolic profiling of steroid hormones in lymphoblastoid cell lines from several pairs of siblings reveals higher levels of testosterone in the autistic sibling, which is consistent with the increased expression of two genes involved in the steroidogenesis pathway. Global gene expression profiling of cultured cells from ASD probands thus serves as a window to underlying metabolic and signaling deficits that may be relevant to the pathobiology of autism.

19. Stereotypies and hyperactivity in rhesus monkeys exposed to IgG from mothers of children with autism
Martin LA et al.
California National Primate Research Center and The MIND Institute
Brain Behav Immun. 2008 Aug;22(6):806-16. Epub 2008 Feb 8.

Autism together with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified form a spectrum of conditions (autism spectrum disorders or ASD) that is characterized by disturbances in social behavior, impaired communication and the presence of stereotyped behaviors or circumscribed interests. Recent estimates indicate a prevalence of ASD of 1 per 150 (Kuehn, 2007). The cause(s) of most cases of ASD are unknown but there is an emerging consensus that ASD have multiple etiologies. One proposed cause of ASD is exposure of the fetal brain to maternal autoantibodies during pregnancy [Dalton, P., Deacon, R., Blamire, A., Pike, M., McKinlay, I., Stein, J., Styles, P., Vincent, A., 2003. Maternal neuronal antibodies associated with autism and a language disorder. Ann. Neurol. 53, 533-537]. To provide evidence for this hypothesis, four rhesus monkeys were exposed prenatally to human IgG collected from mothers of multiple children diagnosed with ASD. Four control rhesus monkeys were exposed to human IgG collected from mothers of multiple typically developing children. Five additional monkeys were untreated controls. Monkeys were observed in a variety of behavioral paradigms involving unique social situations. Behaviors were scored by trained observers and overall activity was monitored with actimeters. Rhesus monkeys gestationally exposed to IgG class antibodies from mothers of children with ASD consistently demonstrated increased whole-body stereotypies across multiple testing paradigms. These monkeys were also hyperactive compared to controls. Treatment with IgG purified from mothers of typically developing children did not induce stereotypical or hyperactive behaviors. These findings support the potential for an autoimmune etiology in a subgroup of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. This research raises the prospect of prenatal evaluation for neurodevelopmental risk factors and the potential for preventative therapeutics.